The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great , as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica". Textiles of Southeast Asia: There are also a number of other cotton seed companies selling GM cotton around the world. As water resources get tighter around the world, economies that rely on it face difficulties and conflict, as well as potential environmental problems.
Shop by Size Women's. All Auction Buy It Now. Guaranteed 3 day delivery. Inspired by an oversized boyfriend shirt, Dotti's shirtdress swim cover-up is finished with button tab sleeves.
Point collar; button-front closures. Due to differences in lighting, fabric textures, and your computer settings, colors can differ. We try to describe the color exactly as the manufacturer has described it. However, we are not responsible if the item color differs slightly from the color on your monitor. Crochet details amplify the folkloric appeal of this breezy cotton cover-up from La Blanca.
Round neck, crochet trim at center and hem, dropped waist. Tie at back neck. Used but still good condition beach cover up has elastic waist side slit pockets and deep V neck.
It has a smocked top and is one size fits all. There is no stretch to this fabric. The torso part is fully lined. This is a super cute robe or swim coverup!
Handmade out of a blue Hawaiian print and has an attached belt. There is a small part of the hem that needs to be resewn on the front opening. It is a one-size-fits-all and is 53" long from shoulder to hem. Delicate hand knitting, chic and enchanting, sexy and attractive.
Made of purified cotton, durable and comfortable. Embroidered sarong perfect for a beach cover-up or a light wrap on a breezy evening. Plus size beach coverup top from Old Navy. Low cut in the front and sheer. Could also be worn as a regular blouse if layered over a cami. Like what you see?. The EIC embraced the demand, particularly for calico , by expanding its factories in Asia and producing and importing cloth in bulk, creating competition for domestic woollen and linen textile producers.
The impacted weavers, spinners, dyers, shepherds and farmers objected and the calico question became one of the major issues of National politics between the s and the s. Parliament began to see a decline in domestic textile sales, and an increase in imported textiles from places like China and India. Seeing the East India Company and their textile importation as a threat to domestic textile businesses, Parliament passed the Calico Act, blocking the importation of cotton cloth.
As there was no punishment for continuing to sell cotton cloth, smuggling of the popular material became commonplace. In , dissatisfied with the results of the first act, Parliament passed a stricter addition, this time prohibiting the sale of most cottons, imported and domestic exempting only thread Fustian and raw cotton.
The exemption of raw cotton from the prohibition initially saw 2 thousand bales of cotton imported annually, to become the basis of a new indigenous industry, initially producing Fustian for the domestic market, though more importantly triggering the development of a series of mechanised spinning and weaving technologies, to process the material. This mechanised production was concentrated in new cotton mills , which slowly expanded till by the beginning of the s seven thousand bales of cotton were imported annually, and pressure was put on Parliament, by the new mill owners, to remove the prohibition on the production and sale of pure cotton cloth, as they could easily compete with anything the EIC could import.
The acts were repealed in , triggering a wave of investment in mill based cotton spinning and production, doubling the demand for raw cotton within a couple of years, and doubling it again every decade, into the s . Indian cotton textiles, particularly those from Bengal , continued to maintain a competitive advantage up until the 19th century.
In order to compete with India, Britain invested in labour-saving technical progress, while implementing protectionist policies such as bans and tariffs to restrict Indian imports. India's cotton-processing sector changed during EIC expansion in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. From focusing on supplying the British market to supplying East Asia with raw cotton. As the Artisan produced textiles were no longer competitive with those produced Industrially, and Europe preferring the cheaper slave produced, long staple American, and Egyptian cottons, for its own materials.
The advent of the Industrial Revolution in Britain provided a great boost to cotton manufacture, as textiles emerged as Britain's leading export. In , Lewis Paul and John Wyatt , of Birmingham , England, patented the roller spinning machine, as well as the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing cotton to a more even thickness using two sets of rollers that traveled at different speeds.
Later, the invention of the James Hargreaves ' spinning jenny in , Richard Arkwright 's spinning frame in and Samuel Crompton 's spinning mule in enabled British spinners to produce cotton yarn at much higher rates. From the late 18th century on, the British city of Manchester acquired the nickname " Cottonopolis " due to the cotton industry's omnipresence within the city, and Manchester's role as the heart of the global cotton trade.
Production capacity in Britain and the United States was improved by the invention of the modern cotton gin by the American Eli Whitney in Before the development of cotton gins, the cotton fibers had to be pulled from the seeds tediously by hand. By the late s, a number of crude ginning machines had been developed. However, to produce a bale of cotton required over hours of human labor,  making large-scale production uneconomical in the United States, even with the use of humans as slave labor.
The gin that Whitney manufactured the Holmes design reduced the hours down to just a dozen or so per bale. Although Whitney patented his own design for a cotton gin, he manufactured a prior design from Henry Odgen Holmes , for which Holmes filed a patent in By the s, India was no longer capable of supplying the vast quantities of cotton fibers needed by mechanized British factories, while shipping bulky, low-price cotton from India to Britain was time-consuming and expensive.
This, coupled with the emergence of American cotton as a superior type due to the longer, stronger fibers of the two domesticated Native American species, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense , encouraged British traders to purchase cotton from plantations in the United States and plantations in the Caribbean.
By the midth century, " King Cotton " had become the backbone of the southern American economy. In the United States, cultivating and harvesting cotton became the leading occupation of slaves. During the American Civil War , American cotton exports slumped due to a Union blockade on Southern ports , and also because of a strategic decision by the Confederate government to cut exports, hoping to force Britain to recognize the Confederacy or enter the war.
This prompted the main purchasers of cotton, Britain and France , to turn to Egyptian cotton. British and French traders invested heavily in cotton plantations. The Egyptian government of Viceroy Isma'il took out substantial loans from European bankers and stock exchanges. After the American Civil War ended in , British and French traders abandoned Egyptian cotton and returned to cheap American exports, [ citation needed ] sending Egypt into a deficit spiral that led to the country declaring bankruptcy in , a key factor behind Egypt's occupation by the British Empire in During this time, cotton cultivation in the British Empire , especially Australia and India, greatly increased to replace the lost production of the American South.
Through tariffs and other restrictions, the British government discouraged the production of cotton cloth in India; rather, the raw fiber was sent to England for processing. The Indian Mahatma Gandhi described the process:. In the United States, Southern cotton provided capital for the continuing development of the North. The cotton was largely produced through the labor of enslaved African Americans.
It enriched both the Southern landowners and the Northern merchants. Much of the Southern cotton was trans-shipped through northern ports. In this era the slogan "Cotton is king" characterized the attitude of the South toward this monocrop. Cotton remained a key crop in the Southern economy after emancipation and the end of the Civil War in Across the South, sharecropping evolved, in which landless black and white farmers worked land owned by others in return for a share of the profits.
Some farmers rented the land and bore the production costs themselves. Until mechanical cotton pickers were developed, cotton farmers needed additional labor to hand-pick cotton. Picking cotton was a source of income for families across the South.
Rural and small town school systems had split vacations so children could work in the fields during "cotton-picking. It was not until the s that reliable harvesting machinery was introduced prior to this, cotton-harvesting machinery had been too clumsy to pick cotton without shredding the fibers. Cotton remains a major export of the southern United States , and a majority of the world's annual cotton crop is of the long-staple American variety.
Soils usually need to be fairly heavy, although the level of nutrients does not need to be exceptional. In general, these conditions are met within the seasonally dry tropics and subtropics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, but a large proportion of the cotton grown today is cultivated in areas with less rainfall that obtain the water from irrigation.
Production of the crop for a given year usually starts soon after harvesting the preceding autumn. Cotton is naturally a perennial but is grown as an annual to help control pests. The area of the United States known as the South Plains is the largest contiguous cotton-growing region in the world. While dryland non-irrigated cotton is successfully grown in this region, consistent yields are only produced with heavy reliance on irrigation water drawn from the Ogallala Aquifer.
Since cotton is somewhat salt and drought tolerant, this makes it an attractive crop for arid and semiarid regions. As water resources get tighter around the world, economies that rely on it face difficulties and conflict, as well as potential environmental problems. In the days of the Soviet Union , the Aral Sea was tapped for agricultural irrigation, largely of cotton, and now salination is widespread. Cotton can also be cultivated to have colors other than the yellowish off-white typical of modern commercial cotton fibers.
Naturally colored cotton can come in red, green, and several shades of brown. Genetically modified GM cotton was developed to reduce the heavy reliance on pesticides. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt naturally produces a chemical harmful only to a small fraction of insects, most notably the larvae of moths and butterflies , beetles , and flies , and harmless to other forms of life.
In many regions, the main pests in commercial cotton are lepidopteran larvae, which are killed by the Bt protein in the transgenic cotton they eat. This eliminates the need to use large amounts of broad-spectrum insecticides to kill lepidopteran pests some of which have developed pyrethroid resistance.
This spares natural insect predators in the farm ecology and further contributes to noninsecticide pest management. But Bt cotton is ineffective against many cotton pests, however, such as plant bugs , stink bugs , and aphids ; depending on circumstances it may still be desirable to use insecticides against these.
A study done by Cornell researchers, the Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy and the Chinese Academy of Science on Bt cotton farming in China found that after seven years these secondary pests that were normally controlled by pesticide had increased, necessitating the use of pesticides at similar levels to non-Bt cotton and causing less profit for farmers because of the extra expense of GM seeds.
The secondary pests were mostly miridae plant bugs whose increase was related to local temperature and rainfall and only continued to increase in half the villages studied. Moreover, the increase in insecticide use for the control of these secondary insects was far smaller than the reduction in total insecticide use due to Bt cotton adoption.
A Chinese study concluded that Bt cotton halved the use of pesticides and doubled the level of ladybirds, lacewings and spiders. GM cotton acreage in India grew at a rapid rate, increasing from 50, hectares in to The total cotton area in India was This made India the country with the largest area of GM cotton in the world.
GM cotton crop was 4. Cotton has been genetically modified for resistance to glyphosate a broad-spectrum herbicide discovered by Monsanto which also sells some of the Bt cotton seeds to farmers. There are also a number of other cotton seed companies selling GM cotton around the world. Cotton has gossypol , a toxin that makes it inedible. However, scientists have silenced the gene that produces the toxin, making it a potential food crop. Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton from plants not genetically modified and that is certified to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals, such as fertilizers or pesticides.
This institution determines the allowed practices for pest control, growing, fertilizing, and handling of organic crops. The cotton industry relies heavily on chemicals, such as herbicides , fertilizers and insecticides , although a very small number of farmers are moving toward an organic model of production, and organic cotton products are now available for purchase at limited locations. These are popular for baby clothes and diapers.
Under most definitions, organic products do not use genetic engineering. All natural cotton products are known to be both sustainable and hypoallergenic.
Historically, in North America, one of the most economically destructive pests in cotton production has been the boll weevil. This program, along with the introduction of genetically engineered Bt cotton which contains a bacterial gene that codes for a plant-produced protein that is toxic to a number of pests such as cotton bollworm and pink bollworm , has allowed a reduction in the use of synthetic insecticides.
Other significant global pests of cotton include the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella ; the chili thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis ; the cotton seed bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis ; the tarnish plant bug, Lygus lineolaris ; and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda , Xanthomonas citri subsp. Most cotton in the United States, Europe and Australia is harvested mechanically, either by a cotton picker , a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant, or by a cotton stripper, which strips the entire boll off the plant.
Cotton strippers are used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton, and usually after application of a chemical defoliant or the natural defoliation that occurs after a freeze. Cotton is a perennial crop in the tropics, and without defoliation or freezing, the plant will continue to grow. Cotton continues to be picked by hand in developing countries.
The era of manufactured fibers began with the development of rayon in France in the s. Rayon is derived from a natural cellulose and cannot be considered synthetic, but requires extensive processing in a manufacturing process, and led the less expensive replacement of more naturally derived materials.
A succession of new synthetic fibers were introduced by the chemicals industry in the following decades. Acetate in fiber form was developed in Nylon , the first fiber synthesized entirely from petrochemicals, was introduced as a sewing thread by DuPont in , followed by DuPont's acrylic in Some garments were created from fabrics based on these fibers, such as women's hosiery from nylon, but it was not until the introduction of polyester into the fiber marketplace in the early s that the market for cotton came under threat.
Cotton production recovered in the s, but crashed to pre levels in the early s. Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth for highly absorbent bath towels and robes ; denim for blue jeans ; cambric , popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts from which we get the term " blue-collar " ; and corduroy , seersucker , and cotton twill. Socks , underwear , and most T-shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting.
Fabric also can be made from recycled or recovered cotton that otherwise would be thrown away during the spinning, weaving, or cutting process. While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with other fibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester.
It can either be used in knitted or woven fabrics, as it can be blended with elastine to make a stretchier thread for knitted fabrics, and apparel such as stretch jeans.
Cotton can be blended also with linen as Linen-cotton blends which give benefit of both plant materials which wrinkle resistant, lightweight, breathable and can keep heat more effectively than only linen. These blends are thinner and lighter, but stronger than only cotton. In addition to the textile industry , cotton is used in fishing nets , coffee filters , tents , explosives manufacture see nitrocellulose , cotton paper , and in bookbinding.
The first Chinese paper was made of cotton fiber. The cottonseed which remains after the cotton is ginned is used to produce cottonseed oil , which, after refining, can be consumed by humans like any other vegetable oil.
The cottonseed meal that is left generally is fed to ruminant livestock; the gossypol remaining in the meal is toxic to monogastric animals. Cottonseed hulls can be added to dairy cattle rations for roughage. During the American slavery period, cotton root bark was used in folk remedies as an abortifacient , that is, to induce a miscarriage.
Gossypol was one of the many substances found in all parts of the cotton plant and it was described by the scientists as 'poisonous pigment'. It also appears to inhibit the development of sperm or even restrict the mobility of the sperm. Also, it is thought to interfere with the menstrual cycle by restricting the release of certain hormones. Cotton linters are fine, silky fibers which adhere to the seeds of the cotton plant after ginning.
The term also may apply to the longer textile fiber staple lint as well as the shorter fuzzy fibers from some upland species. Linters are traditionally used in the manufacture of paper and as a raw material in the manufacture of cellulose. In the UK, linters are referred to as "cotton wool". This can also be a refined product absorbent cotton in U. Shiny cotton is a processed version of the fiber that can be made into cloth resembling satin for shirts and suits.
Long staple LS cotton is cotton of a longer fibre length and therefore of higher quality, while Extra-long staple cotton ELS cotton has longer fibre length still and of even higher quality. While Pima cotton is often grown in the American southwest [ citation needed ] , the Pima name is now used by cotton-producing nations such as Peru, Australia and Israel.
Cotton lisle is a finely-spun, tightly twisted type of cotton that is noted for being strong and durable. Lisle is composed of two strands that have each been twisted an extra twist per inch than ordinary yarns and combined to create a single thread. The yarn is spun so that it is compact and solid. This cotton is used mainly for underwear, stockings, and gloves.
Colors applied to this yarn are noted for being more brilliant than colors applied to softer yarn. This type of thread was first made in the city of Lisle, France now Lille , hence its name. The largest producers of cotton, currently , are China and India, with annual production of about 34 million bales and Africa's share of the cotton trade has doubled since Neither area has a significant domestic textile industry, textile manufacturing having moved to developing nations in Eastern and South Asia such as India and China.
In Africa, cotton is grown by numerous small holders. Dunavant Enterprises, based in Memphis, Tennessee , is the leading cotton broker in Africa, with hundreds of purchasing agents.
It operates cotton gins in Uganda, Mozambique, and Zambia. In Zambia, it often offers loans for seed and expenses to the , small farmers who grow cotton for it, as well as advice on farming methods. Cargill also purchases cotton in Africa for export. Dunavant expanded in Africa by buying out local operations.
This is only possible in former British colonies and Mozambique; former French colonies continue to maintain tight monopolies, inherited from their former colonialist masters, on cotton purchases at low fixed prices.
The five leading exporters of cotton in are 1 the United States , 2 India , 3 Brazil , 4 Australia , and 5 Uzbekistan. The largest nonproducing importers are Korea , Taiwan , Russia , and Japan.
In India , the states of Maharashtra In the United States, the state of Texas led in total production as of ,  while the state of California had the highest yield per acre.
Cotton is an enormously important commodity throughout the world. However, many farmers in developing countries receive a low price for their produce, or find it difficult to compete with developed countries.
On 8 September , the Panel Report recommended that the United States "withdraw" export credit guarantees and payments to domestic users and exporters, and "take appropriate steps to remove the adverse effects or withdraw" the mandatory price-contingent subsidy measures. In addition to concerns over subsidies, the cotton industries of some countries are criticized for employing child labor and damaging workers' health by exposure to pesticides used in production.
The Environmental Justice Foundation has campaigned against the prevalent use of forced child and adult labor in cotton production in Uzbekistan , the world's third largest cotton exporter. The fair trade system was initiated in with producers from Cameroon , Mali and Senegal. Cotton is bought and sold by investors and price speculators as a tradable commodity on 2 different commodity exchanges in the United States of America.
Damaged cotton is sometimes stored at these temperatures to prevent further deterioration. Egypt has a unique climatic temperature that the soil and the temperature provide an exceptional environment for cotton to grow rapidly.
There is a public effort to sequence the genome of cotton. It was started in by a consortium of public researchers. The consortium agreed to first sequence the D-genome wild relative of cultivated cotton G. It has nearly one-third of the bases of tetraploid cotton, and each chromosome occurs only once. Its genome is roughly twice that of G. After both diploid genomes are assembled, they would be used as models for sequencing the genomes of tetraploid cultivated species.
Without knowing the diploid genomes, the euchromatic DNA sequences of AD genomes would co-assemble, and their repetitive elements would assemble independently into A and D sequences respectively.
There would be no way to untangle the mess of AD sequences without comparing them to their diploid counterparts. The public sector effort continues with the goal to create a high-quality, draft genome sequence from reads generated by all sources. The effort has generated Sanger reads of BACs, fosmids, and plasmids, as well as reads. These later types of reads will be instrumental in assembling an initial draft of the D genome.
In , the companies Monsanto and Illumina completed enough Illumina sequencing to cover the D genome of G. This public relations effort gave them some recognition for sequencing the cotton genome. Once the D genome is assembled from all of this raw material, it will undoubtedly assist in the assembly of the AD genomes of cultivated varieties of cotton, but much work remains.
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